Shakib picked up the injury during the opening Test defeat in Chittagong that ended Sunday.
He was unable to bat and bowl in the second innings.
His absence was felt massively when Bangladesh were unable to defend a large 394-run lead.
Kyle Mayers struck an unbeaten 210 as a weakened West Indies won the game by three wickets.
“Shakib has been assessed and monitored continuously since suffering a strain on his left thigh on the second day of the match,” the Bangladesh Cricket Board said in a statement.
No replacement has been named for the second Test which starts in Dhaka on Friday.